In the episode, 'Mind Maidens' of the TV animation, 'Super-Friends', first went on air in 1977, viewers were introduced to Medula, described as the most brilliant and most dangerous woman on earth. It was understood the medulla was "easily the most important part of the brain. Its functions are involuntary, or done without thought." Based in a mountain lair protected by a mental force field, Medula used the power of her computerized will booster, which only worked with female brainwave, to beam her will to women all over the world in order to control the mind of every woman on earth. In doing so, women would enable Medula to rule the world unopposed. 

Women possessed by Medula's will control had strange glowing eyes that allowed them to beam the men, from presidents, kings, prime ministers to factory workers into microdots which would then be stored in a computer tape. Medula's mission was world power. Women from all over the world were commanded to take over all armies, governments and ruling bodies to allow Medula to take over world power and rule supreme. 

For the sake of mankind, the Super-Friends were able to stop Medula and free all the women. In the end, Wonder Woman said, "Medula's method of controlling women and putting them in power was wrong. Only gradually, a step at the time, that social custom be changed, no matter what they may be." Superman added, "Perhaps now she realizes her method of controlling women for her own personal power was wrong." 

In 1978, Wally Minto conducted a 4-hour per day for 6 days of Alpha (or beginning) Awareness training to teach anyone of any age to expand their awareness into the subconscious mind and tap the information that would allow them to learn to control their mind, their body, their life and their environment through enlightenment. The 10 years of lecturing and studying positive thinking, cybernetics, motivation, goal-structuring, awareness, meditation and extrasensory awareness evolved into the Alpha Awareness training. 

Speaking to the Park City, Utah newspaper, Wally Minto maintained, "Alpha Awareness training is in no way designed to give you any more knowledge, but rather to help you understand and gain enlightenment from the knowledge you already have. If you are wondering what enlightenment really is, enlightenment is the ah-hahs you experience in life. When you are doing something and suddenly you say, 'Ah-hah, now I understand,'; that's enlightenment." 

According to theory, the mind could be divided into three equal parts of a yardstick. 'The Newspaper' understood, "The first 12 inches could be thought of as the area representing our waking state, or conscious mind, the second foot our unconscious mind." Alpha Awareness training was aimed at exercising greater control over the processes that took place in the subconscious mind such as creativity, habits, emotions and the autonomic nervous system, which governed such things as heartbeat, respiration, blood pressure and skin temperature. 

An instructor of Silva Mind Control which centered on using the subconscious mind consciously, George Valva told reporter Karen Herman in 1975, "All illness is rooted in the subconscious mind and it has to go through the rational mind to get to the subconscious mind. A person won't be able to help themselves because they can't reach their subconscious mind. Through working cases we're flowing healing suggestions into their mind.

"Each person is capable of functioning at Alpha level and the capability is unlimited. We, however, spend most of our time at an outer consciousness, caught up with sight, sounds, smell, touch, taste, time and space … Mind control really works for people who can change habits, which are really only symptoms of underlying causes." At the time, the question in scienfitic circles was, "If the mind causes physical illness, then why can't the mind reverse the situation?"

Another instructor Richard C. Lovete made the point, "The unconscious mind works like a computer. It has no way to sort out truth from untruth." Jose Silva believed healing was one of the things the subconscious could do, even of cancer. When the mind operated at beta level, "You're interfering with your healing processes. When you go to the alpha, you're in a neutral dimension – the body corrects problems, the body heals itself. Nine out of 10 problems are psychosomatic."

Jose Silva founded Silva Mind Control when "I came across the discovery of brain wave frequencies."  Reporter Deborah Stearns Sullivan learnt he was particularly interested in Alpha. Five to 10% of all people, for unknown reason, were able naturally to "go to Alpha level" to relax, solve problems, do deeper thinking. "They're considered to be successful, highly intuitive, leaders, writers, inventors, with tremendous perceptive abilities. How they get to that brain level nobody knows. In the rest of us, that ability atrophies, we use Beta to think and act."

Jose Silva also told Associated Press, "When I first got interested in this, I thought of teaching children to use the Alpha brainwave level to enhance their IQ. However, a phenomenon started appearing. After so many hours of training in these mental exercises, the children started answering the questions before we had asked them, as though they were reading our minds. Then we started setting up research projects to see if we could enhance that faculty, rather than just the IQ."

Howard Tooke taught mind control classes told reporter Charles B. Kelly in 1973, until a person reached the age of 14, that child would experience Alpha or lower levels of brainwave, meaning a child's mind could be easily impressed. However too often, fears, guilty feelings and misconceptions were programmed which continue to influence the adult mind even though it was locked on to the Beta or "rational" level. 'The Arizona Republic' understood, "So sensitive is the mental computer, even at the adult stage, the Mind Control advocates avoid using negative terms, even casually."

Jose Silva continued, "We set up problem cases, maybe in family relations or in a business matter. I would know the problem but I would give the child only a hint, maybe one or two pointers. Well, the child would fill in the entire problem, sometimes with just one fact to go on. That's how we got started and we call that subjective communications. It seems that the physical senses operate at the Beta level of mind – the normal conscious state – but at the deeper Alpha level we have another set of senses and they have another set of senses and they have their own way of communicating. We can call it psychic or ESP, or thought transference or whatever, but it's another set of sense. And it seems that at the Alpha level we are all connected."

Wally Minto noted, "In Alpha Awareness training we are not interested in altering the state of consciousness into the subconscious mind, but rather in a process of gradually expanding awareness into the subconscious area of the mind. Through repeated mental training exercises you learn to expand your awareness into the 13th inch of our yardstick, then into the 14th, 15th, and so on … You may have awareness from the first inch up to the 20th inch at any moment you desire."

Wally Minto described the subconscious as the inner-conscious since sub meant below or without. By using two words and a phrase, an individual could trigger his or her mind to enter the inner-conscious mind with awareness since the human brain cells were impressed with thousands of triggering mechanisms. As 'The Newspaper' learnt, "They are virtually anything that causes an action or reaction without conscious effort. A typical example of a triggering mechanism is the automatic application of foot to brake when you see red lights flash on the car in front of you."

Wally Minto maintained, "Our triggering mechanism, 'Relax, I Am, Within,' is only for the learning part of Alpha Awareness. Once you have learned to function with control in the inner-conscious level of mind, we will then take this triggering mechanism away. Once you have learned to function with inner-conscious awareness, then all you need to trigger it is the desire or the need."

Wally Minto compared the brain to soil, pointing out that the earth did not care what someone planted in it and would yield good seed as abundantly as weed. The brain, then, would yield negative thoughts as abundantly as positive. "You can plant the idea of success or failure, happiness or depression, poverty or abundance, perfect health chemistry that will allow the body chemistry to produce a healthful balance.

"That chemistry then also can procure a natural balance in your mind that will effect your environment and life. I am not a guru or a miracle worker. Alpha Awareness training might be thought of as a vehicle. It is my job to describe the vehicle to you, show you how to operate it, and give  you a road map with several different directions in which you may drive the vehicle. What I am saying is that I can give you the vehicle, but I will not be your chauffeur." 



The episode, 'Invasion of the Brian Creatures' of the TV animation, 'Super-Friends', first went on air in 1978. In the episode, viewers saw brain creatures from the planet Mars using their mental power to create a lightning storm. The creatures' mission was to destroy the surface of the Earth, in effect, triggering the start of Doomsday as stated in the Bible. As the Super-Friends came to the Earth rescue, the Martian brain creatures tried to take over their minds and kept them under their control. 

Wonder Woman, using her incredible mental power, struggled to free herself from the brain creature hold, eventually overpowering the mental control of the brain creature and regaining total control of her mind. In order to stop the brain creatures from invading Earth, viewers were told the Super-Friends would have to use all of the energy from the northern hemisphere and South Pole in order to create a super charge flow of electricity to the center of the Earth. The flow of electricity would increase the Earth's magnetic field, trapping all of the brain creatures' mental energy. The total energy used to defeat the Martians was said to be a trillion kilowatt, comprised of almost 100 nations in the world. 

John E. Gibson informed in 1977, "Your unconscious mind plays an important role in everyday life." Sociologist Otakar Machotka's findings was reported in his monograph, 'The Unconscious in Social Relations'. In it, as John Gibson learnt, Otakar Machotka found that many people developed an amazing use of unconscious perceptions to assess another's sincerity, intentions and so on, and that the most frequent clues that people unconsciously noted were the slight movements of the eyes and facial muscles, involuntary gestures, short hesitations and inflections of the voice. 

As reported, "Since the evaluation of these clues usually is done unconsciously, we become conscious only of the result of the judgment." Otakar Machotka also stressed the importance of unconscious impressions to social life was difficult to overestimate because many of people's relationships with other people were based largely on his or her "unconscious reactions to them."

Examples provided were "avoidance of certain people, development of friendliness, hesitation in accepting help or cooperation from someone, acceptance of the convictions and attitudes of other people, for example, how much unconscious perceptions help in dealing with others and in coping with various situations depends on the extent to which we heed the promptings that result from these perceptions. 

"They can play a central role in supplying us with a continuous flow of information regarding how others feel about us, how they respond to us, the effect of the interplay of moods and attitudes, etc. All this plays a considerable part in providing smooth contacts with people and in working out a compromise between their interests and our own wishes or values." 

John Gibson continued, "Sensitivity to the feelings and impressions arising from unconscious faculties tends to go hand in hand with creativity. Studies conducted at the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research cite findings showing that people widely differ in the case with which they can relax mentally to heed the flow of impulses and imagery arising from unconscious layers of the personality. The research suggests that the more creative a person is the more adept he is in 'shifting mental gears,' enabling him to tune in on unconscious as well as conscious levels." 

It was understood the person's unconscious was likely to reveal more about that person than anything that person say. The University of Utah professor of psychology Ernst. G. Beler believed simple, everyday behavior when one met others in social situations "is full of unconscious choices that stem from unconscious motivations. We commit revealing 'errors' and 'slips' for valid reasons that our conscious minds refuse to accept." 

As reported, the slips frequently revealed more about how the person actually felt than anything the person may say. John Gibson continued, "Your unconscious can be your best friend – or a source of aggravation and embarrassment. People often 'give' a problem to their unconscious mind before going to bed – to 'sleep on it' - and wake up in the morning with the answer." 

Dr. Paul Thomas Young, professor of psychology emeritus at the University of Illinois, made the point studies showing that "forgetting appointments, losing objects, slips of the tongue, breaking things (including our bones) seemingly by accident, awkward movements and other phenomena of everyday life are motivated by determinants of which the subject is not consciously awake." 

Desmond and Carol Cartwright did a study on 'Psychological Adjustment' discovered that "a large number of non-understandable phenomena may be attributed to the working out of unconscious conflict: the good student who fails exams, the probationer who breaks down in the last week of an unblemished two-year period of probation, the person who always is going to get married, but never gets as far as the altar, for instance." 

Further more, "Your unconscious even can cause you to lose money in the stock market." A University of North Carolina study highlighted reports of stock-market experts indicating that "fluctuations of the stock market and the unpredictable activities of those who invest in it are frequently based on psychological rather than on economic reasons." A case history was reported of a businessman's consistent unconscious urge to lose money in the stock market. John Gibson continued, "Analysis revealed a strong unconscious drive to appease guilt feelings brought on by hostility felt toward his father." 

Marshall McLuhan maintained, "I don't explain – I explore (or probes). There is absolutely no inevitability as long as there is a willingness to contemplate what is happening. I find most pop culture monstrous and sickening. I study it for my own survival. The medium is the message. The world is a global village. Cool is involving, hot is not." 

Walter Ong credited Marshall McLuhan for "his genius for spotting correlations between the most discontinuous phenomena." A colleague of Marshall McLuhan described him as "one of the most linear men I've ever met." It was understood Marshall McLuhan had been "left-handed in childhood but was subsequently compelled to use his right hand." 'The New York Times' reported in 1985, "In a 1974 film clip, McLuhan says that Homer sprang from the oral tradition and that Plato, literacy and ritualized education wiped him out. Now (in the 20th century), he says, we once again live in an acoustic age. Phonetic literacy weakens, and rock becomes a form of education."



In the episode 'Warpland' on the TV animation, 'Super-Friends', produced in 1983, Superman and Batman went outer space in order to stop a meteor heading straight for earth. Travelling at the speed of light, they found themselves going through a black hole, a strange warp into another world in a parallel universe. 

"We came into this universe by accident and if we don't get back within a few minutes thousands of our own kind may be destroyed," Batman protested. Superfrog snapped, "Your primitive human mind makes up incredible tales." The aliens then began changing Superman and Batman into animals, an eagle and a bat. The aliens known as Zoons also told Superman and Batman, "Soon your mind will change to match your exterior."  

Allen Spraggett reported in 1974, "Off the record, some scientific ufologists are prepared to speculate that UFOs may be intrusions from a parallel universe – another world or dimension, occupying the same space as the one we live in and yet not interacting with our world because of differences in the structure of its matter. The visitors get from there to here through the mysterious 'black holes' in space which, according to some scientific ufologists, may actually be openings or corridors into another dimension." 

In the 1973 book, 'The God's Themselves' by Isaac Asimov, which was set in three parts, of which the first took place in the year 2070 (some 100 years in the future). In the book, beings, discovered living in a parallel universe, could communicate with earthlings, exchanging matter which releases free energy in apparent violation of the second Law of Thermodynamics. 

Insisting "unless we welcome our friends from space," Robert Spencer Carr, who was a professor at the University of South Florida, claimed, "then our century (the 20th century) will be the century in which all of our struggles for progress will be in vain. For the first time a hand extended from space is brutally and crudely struck. Always they have been humanoid, no monsters have come from space. Either we are their lost colonies, or they are our lost cousins." 

Dr. J. H. Bruening, who was a professor of parapsychology at Ole Miss (in Oxford Mississippi), believed beings from a parallel universe (or visitors from other planets) had channeled Earth through another dimension, attempting to educate people on Earth. The professor made the point, "They come and go seemingly to and from nowhere, without regard for the laws of time and space." 

In 'Day Of The Dinosaur', Wonder Woman and Samurai found themselves fell beneath the surface of the earth, down below the crust, and landed in a strange forgotten subterranean world occupied by prehistoric plants, animals (Triceracorn, Tyrannosaurus) and other races (the cavemen Slarums and the more advanced Volti who lived in the domed city under the earth). Technos, the leader of the Volti, told Wonder Woman the Volti had been on earth for a billion years.

Jack Anderson told students at Peabody College in 1962, American people lived in "a subterranean world" of half truth about world affairs. "We have become a nation of headline readers, reading with half an eye and listening with half an ear. They (radio and TV news) are packaged in a five-minute capsule which gives you about as much as you can get from a slow drive past a well-lighted newsstand. We have become largely a nation in a subterranean world of half light. We see unclearly, and we deal in half information."

In 1971, George Lucas, then 25, wrote, directed and edited the Warner Bros. science fiction picture, 'THX 1138' which told a story about the inhabitants of a computer-controlled subterranean world in the future where men and women were programmed into subjection through the use of drugs. The sex act was unlikely since drugs remove desire and it was forbidden. Mechanical men would enforce the laws.

In October 1995, two scientists in the US discovered a community of bacteria beyond 900 yards under Columbia River in Washington state that seemed to live in total darkness on a diet of rocks and water. The findings were reported in the 'Science' journal. In September 1995, 'Nature' reported of a community of bacteria found some 1,500 yards below Paris, that dined on hydrogen from basalt and water and produced methane or natural gas as a by-product.

Tim Radford of 'Manchester Guardian Service' reported, "Both (findings), scientists believe, are evidence of a hitherto unsuspected subterranean world that does not depend on the sun. There are plenty of creatures that live forever in the dark, but feed on products – decaying vegetation, corpses from the ocean surface, oxygen in the air – that do depend on sunlight.

"Slimes, also known as Anaerobic (oxygen) subsurface lithoautotrophic (eating rocks) microbial ecosystems, could help answer large questions, such as the nature of life on Earth before oxygen was produced by photosynthesis. Todd Stevens and James McKinley of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory point out that basalt, water and bicarbonate probably exist below the surface of Mars, so there could be life on the red planet after all."

In 'Bulgor the Behemoth', a writer at an animation studio worked late into the night to meet his TV script deadline. A heavy storm lightning suddenly struck and somehow mysteriously transformed him into the very make-believe character he was creating (similar to 'The Incredible Hulk'). Superman and Apache Chief tried to convince the writer he was unconsciously acting out his story, that he was just an ordinary man who thought he was a monster which was a fictitious character. Bulgor was only an image the writer had created in his mind.

"In classical Freudian theory, the unconscious mind is primitive, aggressive, sexually charged, emotional and basically undesirable but we're finding a kinder, gentler and more rational unconscious that can do all those things we normally ascribe to the conscious mind. When we trust our intuition, we're probably trusting our unconscious mind," psychologist John Kihlstrom told the 'Los Angeles Times' in 1989.

Speaking to 'The New York Times' in 1984, psychologist Dr. Robert Zajonc remarked, "The studies show that the unconscious is something we need to take seriously. People don't always know why they're doing what they're doing because they are influenced by motives, feelings, ideas, perceptions and memories of which they're not aware. In many cases, when people explain why they've made a decision, they are simply rationalizing, attributing what sound like reasonable bases for what is in fact a murky, unknowable process."

Cognitive scientist Dr. Donald Norman added, "The channel of conscious awareness is narrower than the unconscious, but more powerful. The beginner pays full attention to a task. But as a person masters a task, he pays less and less attention to doing it; it goes on smoothly, in the unconscious. That leaves more of his awareness free for other tasks. When an error in an automatic routine occurs, it enters consciousness. One of the main functions of consciousness seems to be making repairs in routines where a slip has occurred. Otherwise, it's handy to have most of what we do go on outside consciousness, so we don't have to be bothered with it."

Dr. Emile Coue wrote the book 'Self Mastery Through Conscious Autosuggestion' (1922). He explained, "In order to understand properly the phenomena of suggestion, or again to speak more correctly, of autosuggestion, it is necessary to know that two absolutely distinct selves exist within us. Both are intelligent, but while one is conscious the other is unconscious."

When conscious, the mind would be active (or awake). When unconscious, the mind would be passive. Dr. Sigmund Freud had stated, "The reason why the dream is in every case a wish realization is because it is a product of the unconscious which knows no other aim in activity except the fulfillment of wishes and which has no other force at its disposal except wish feelings."

Dr. Isador H. Coriat wrote 'The Meaning of Dreams' (1915) elaborated, "These are the repressed thoughts which in the past we have pushed into the unconscious, and are wishes and desires whose nature is such that they act as intruders to the normal course of thinking or are unacceptable to our moral or ethical standards; hence the constant attempt to conceal them and push them out of the conscious into the unconscious.

"Everybody dreams and every dream means something, no matter how fragmentary and ridiculous it may appear. No dream ever deals with trifles, but only with subjects of great personal interest to the dreamer. The dream reveals the true inner man, his various motives and desires, hidden from the view of others and often hidden from his own conscious thoughts."

In February 1979, Gil Bailie, a disciple of Carl Jung, held a seminar on the political and social implications of the discovery of the unconscious psyche. Gil Bailie argued that everyone had a "shadow" side containing the hidden, repressed and unfavorable aspects of their personality which often presented itself in dreams.

"Say my self-image is of a totally truthful man and I think of myself as nothing but honest. There will probably be in my psyche some place that character that is perfectly willing to cut corners. Unless I become familiar with that dimension of my own life – that shadow quality – and unless I'm acquainted with that potential for my dishonesty, it's very easy for someone in my own social environment, for their unconscious, to pick up on that dishonesty and act it out.

"What is now pretty obvious is that in the unconscious we have a connection. In every mystical tradition is the notion that we are all one. Each individual is not an isolated island, but if we go deep enough there is an unconscious reality. That's why Jung termed the deepest level of the unconscious the collective unconscious. We share it. That's why people closest to each other share their dreams.

"If there is something completely unconscious, denied, repressed (in the parent) there is at least a tendency in the child to act it out. It doesn't mean all children act it out." Known as projection, people  watched their own unconscious tendencies in others, "For example, if I think I'm nothing but good, right and wonderful … Actually the human personality is a hodgepodge of good and bad, light and dark, male and female. Then the dark side will be projected onto communists, Chinese, blacks, the generals in the Pentagon, or onto the rednecks in the south, or onto … you name it. That way I can have an enemy. I don't have to admit to an internal enemy and admit to a silent complicity in the world's ills."

Gil Bailie became interested in dreams, as told to Clark Mason, because of "my concern with religious reality and how in the modern world, because we have ignored that reality, it crops up in our dreams the same way sexual imagery cropped up in the dreams of Victorians. The dream is a kind of universal language for the spirit … It's an intricate collaboration between the unconscious and the conscious, a kind of border crossing, the customs gate … If some part of life wants to live and is not being given a chance, it will start to come out in the unconscious."

Gil Bailie maintained the frightening, terrifying dream was also depicting the same process of death and rebirth. "What's happening inside the human being is that a transition is going on. So if some big transformation is going on in somebody, then some part of them is dying and some other part is coming to birth. And the part that's dying sees this process as a disaster. It's depicted in dreams as all those bizarre, disastrous things."

It was understood the discovery of the collective unconscious and its relation to dreams was part of an awakening process, "It's like suddenly waking up one morning and realizing the universe is twice as big as we thought it was and our individual responsibility is vastly greater than we thought it was."

Dr. Frank McCoy wrote 'The Fast Way To Health' (1926). He provided health and diet advice to readers of the 'Oakland Tribune' in 1935. "The conscious and unconscious are two phases of the same mind. About one-tenth of the your thinking is done with your conscious mind and about nine-tenths with the unconscious part. The conscious is the reasoning or thinking part of your mind.

"The unconscious is the seat of emotion, instinct and habit and is the storehouse of memory. Another duty of the unconscious is to rebuild the body, replacing old cells with new ones. Maybe it will help you to think of it in this way; compare the conscious mind with the reception room where records are made and compare the unconscious mind to the store room where they are placed for keeping and where the records are played over and over again.

"One of the important facts about the unconscious is that it does not reason. It works according to the law of suggestion and acts upon the suggestions or commands sent to it by the conscious mind, trying to materialize them. That is, the unconscious tries to make good on what the conscious tells it to do. The fact has been known to all the great teachers of mind control.

"Remember, nine-tenths of your thinking goes on in the unconscious and this part of your mind can be changed by simply changing the kind of suggestion sent to it by the conscious mind. All of the students of mind control who grasp this fact, secure good results. By using good suggestions it is possible to build up the body, since, as I have said, the unconscious directs the building of new cells.

"Suggestion may therefore play an important part in overcoming disease and replacing it with health. There are many of these suggestions which may be used which have an undoubted power in the cure of disease. Of course, I advise that the patient use certain physical measures such as diet, exercise, baths and so on, but nevertheless, the cure will be more rapid in every instance if at the same time, the patient learns to help himself with good suggestions.

"It is true beyond any question of a doubt, that the mind has a tremendous influence on our continued well-being. Many are coming to realize that they can better control these unconscious forces for good by self-suggestions. The unconscious has a tremendous power in affecting the body and is certainly able to produce important physical changes. The state of health is more closely related to this unconscious influence than is commonly realized.

"Suggestions given to the unconscious, whether good or not good, have an importance which cannot be dismissed. I do not hesitate to say that your unconscious mind plays a large part in your health, your success and your happiness. This part of your mind will work wonders if you will give it a chance to help you. To make these suggestions to the unconscious effective, you must hold a mental attitude of expectancy. You must expect to receive that for which you ask.

"You must be expecting it so strongly that you expect it at any moment. It is an unquestioned fact that if you believe you are already receiving it, then you will have the best chance of actually receiving it. We will find this necessary mental attitude mentioned in the Bible, where it says, 'Ask and it shall be given unto you – seek and ye shall find – knock and it shall be opened unto you.' This is another way of saying that while you are yet asking for what you want, it is being given to you."



The book 'We Talk, You Listen' by Vine Deloria Jr. was published in 1970. Robert LaRouche reported, "With Marshall McLuhan providing supportive logic, he sees the tribal system as the natural replacement for a worn out, self-centered economically directed society … Deloria sees two new social forms emerging today (in 1970) – social tribalism, as in the cohesive minority group, and economic feudalism, as practiced by the giant corporations. 

"The contest of the future will be between the castle and the tepee. Feudalism can handle man's technology. Tribalism can provide surcease for the soul and reintegrate man with his environment. America today (in 1970) is undergoing 'a total replacement of its philosophical concepts.' The revolution is in progress, the inevitable product of technology. Violence and dissension are symptoms of transition. 

"Because it is no longer capable of solving today's problems, the old individualism is giving way to a new understanding of man as a member of a group. Tribalism centers on the group, rather than the individual ... In a kind of inverse power formation, persecution solidifies group identity. Deloria sees this as a positive force, the means by which 'only minority groups can have an identity which will withstand the pressures and tidal waves of the electric world.'" 

The book 'The Diamond Age' was published in 1995. 'The Star Tribune' made the comment, "This melting-pot business is not working out. America no longer seems able to meld all the various peoples within its borders into one harmonious whole. As the years go by, Americans seem to identify less with their nation and more with their various subgroups based on ethnicity, religion or race. The rest of the world, now that the Cold War is over, is resuming its long-simmering ethnic rivalries.

"The idea of the large nation-state, grouping people together within geographic boundaries, does not seem to work anymore. We have organized that way for several centuries, but its usefulness may be running out. People seem to identify more with those sharing a common culture or holding similar values. Digital technologies can enhance – or, depending on your perspective, exacerbate – such tendencies. 

"They could allow people to connect with people more like themselves regardless of where they live in the world. And, ultimately, they could allow people to formally organize themselves that way. These new technologies simultaneously reinforce trends toward more localism and more globalism. They can empower smaller and smaller groups of people and allow them to function more autonomously in the world. 

"At the same time, they tend to collapse the world into a more integrated global market which pays much less attention to arbitary political boundaries. That leaves the large nation-state trapped in between. It's too big to deal with the particularities of a small group's needs. It's too small to grapple with economic forces that are global in nature. And it does an increasingly bad job of trying to do both. Over time, we may see the nation fade in its importance until it's just a shadow of its former self.

"For every step toward more parochial localism, there's a step toward more universal globalism … In the digital future, we might even see international peace."



After watching the Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford presidential debates in October 1976, Marshall McLuhan made the comment, "Both radio and television present many nonverbal factors that result in the radio listener's getting a completely different debate from the television viewer. Quite apart from the particular media, the hidden ground of American politics is now (in 1976) a simultaneous information environment that extends to the entire planet. 

"This situation is structured and patterned for role-playing rather than for goals or policies. In effect, this means that both political parties and policies have little relevance in a world that expects a total-service environment. The charismatic image has replaced the goals and the parties and the policies. The main characteristic of an information environment is the proliferation of attractive images and promises. It is a world of public relations and prestige. 

"It is a world of entertainment and promises, characteristic of the folklore of the advertising world. Ford and Carter are both, in their different ways, adequate television images. Carter has an advantage, not only of a Kennedy-like euphoria and bounce; there is the hidden factor of his corporate or Southern group voice and sociability that is not shared by Ford or by the North. The corporate character of Southern oral tradition is manifest in its monopoly of jazz and rock and folk religion. 

"Speaking in terms of the twin hemispheres of the brain, the South represents the right hemisphere – oral, musical, intuitive and social. The North, on the other hand, is strongly allied to the left hemisphere of the brain – lineal, connected, literate and goal-oriented. The electric information environment strongly fosters the dominance of the right hemisphere over the left. It is this new dominance of the right hemisphere that created the generation gap and the world of activist involvement in role-playing. 

"The electronic ground or environment of simultaneous information strongly favors the right hemisphere of the brain and the public – it is a qualitative area of the brain – whereas the left hemisphere is quantitative and specialist. Young America and the television generation have a very heavy bias toward the right hemisphere, whereas Gerald Ford is centered in the left hemisphere of bureaucracy and quantitative industrial performance. 

"The debates, therefore, will align the old pre-TV generation against the young of the TV world. Another feature of the hidden electronic ground that will affect the debates is the total decentralism of responsibility that requires the First World to be the keeper of the Third World. Young America in its art and entertainment now (in 1976) has an empathy with the Third World far exceeding its concern or devotion with the educational and economic establishment of the First World and the left hemisphere. At this point the domestic and the international scene merge and the meaning of 'foreign policy' is reversed." 

Back in July 1972, Marshall McLuhan and Barrington Nevitt, the co-authors of 'Take Today: The Executive as Dropout' explained the return of the hunter and his subsequent take over, "At the present time (in 1972) the new hidden environment is the ring of satellites when began to form in 1957 with Sputnik. The effect of putting the age-old planet inside a man-made environment is to create 'space-capsule Earth.' 

"The planet becomes an old nose cone, a garbage dump, a resource center, an archeological museum, a midden heap of trash and treasures. Typically, on September 11, 1969, in the wilderness of Alaska a bevy of tycoons rallied to hold a little auction. The very ancient and decayed animal matter that was the occasion of their little rally elicited bids of almost $1 billion in total and included a bid of $73 million for one parcel of property. 

"The bidding was in anticipation of services and resources, any of which might be eliminated by technological innovation in the immediate future; for oil, as fuel or as raw material, might be supplanted by new materials and technologies. Hints of this fate are now (in 1972) indicated by the mounting level of disservices provided by this old service environment. The services rendered to ecology by the dinosaur suddenly ended when the dinosaur achieved vast bulk. 

"As the dinosaur became an enviroment, he ceased to accommodate to the existing world. He became pollution and ended. Today (in 1972) the truck and the motor car have long passed the point where their services exceed their disservices in the Western world. It is not so much their noise or stench as their all-pervasiveness that has condemned them. 

"By their flexible power to insert themselves into every corner of the global environment, these vehicles have destroyed neighborhood and community universally. The total alienation of men from their fellows, which results from the destruction of neighborhood, automatically condemns to liquidation the technology that creates such a disservice. The overriding hidden environment of satellites ends the regime of nature forever so far as man is concerned. 

"The Earth itself has become a programmed artifact. But a binary reduction of ecological process to two-bit computer wit will not serve to program human environments. It will only serve to achieve specialist goals. A new total field theory of equilibrium and change is now mandatory. It is not a hypothetical need, but the necessity for total awareness of effects with causes before undertaking any major innovation whatever. 

"For example, in human terms, the effect of the satellite ring is to serve as the proscenium arch that transforms our globe into a theater. People instinctively move toward costumed role-playing as they step out onto the global stage under the proscenium arch of satellites. If the satellite ring scrapped the planet as the old world of nature, it even more decidedly climinated the image of the job-holder or the specialist skills of an old 'hardware' society. 

"People, individually and collectively, are now totally alienated from their earlier image of themselves. This has happened within a decade. In the Renaissance, it required a century and more to achieve anything comparable in the alteration of the human psychic and social organization. Today (in 1972), it is not the loosening of social bonds such as in the Renaissance, but the sudden tightening of social bonds that confronts management in every area of human organization. 

"Humpty Dumpty has gone together again with a rush and without the bureaucratic aid of the King’s horses and the king’s men. The hunter returns and takes over. With high-rise you have Necropolis – ideally a cemetery in the sky – the only answer to which is to put the old housing into costume. For the old-fashioned executive or manager the new costume for anticipating psychic and social effects is dialogue. 

"Dialogue among a diversity of age groups and skills can take the form of simply an inventory of problems in each of several varied roles. Whether the person is 3 years old or 30, whether he is a lawyer or a mortician, a housewife or a teacher a full and frank disclosure of hangups will reveal common pattern. The 3-year-old child lives in a nuclear family, not a neighborhood or a kinship group. He feels isolated. 

"The 30-year-old bureaucrat cannot gain access to the adjacent classified information guarded by his colleagues. The ground rules prevent him from engaging in teamwork. The lawyer is obliged to administer a code which has no relevance to either its victors or victims. He experiences total irrelevance, for the 'victor belongs to the spoils!' 

"The mortician, in a world of cremation on the one hand or of high-rise cemeteries on the other hand, is compelled to offer his clients the very insecure prospect of meeting their Creator half-way. He might as well install telephones as funeral wreaths on coffins in the sky. The high-rise cemeteries (necessary in order to make the fruitful Earth available for the living) is a service environment in the sense that it highlights the disservice environment of high-rise apartments for human living. 

"High-rise, in its first manifestations, merely created a necropolis of non-neighborhoods for nonpeople. A planning genius was needed to anticipate the dehumanizing effects of high-rise and to translate them into their true language of the mortuary. But the pattern revealed by dialogue among diverse individuals is that of the non-functionary and nonspecialist who reveal 'where it's at.'"

Lillian Smith believed the 1966 book 'The Hidden Dimension' by anthropologist Edward T. Hall was a book for statesmen to read and for all people who traveled or worked with different groups (from rural and urban to foreign and domestic) or written about this world. "Each group of us, apparently, inhabits a different sensory world and peers out at the others through a different perceptive screen."

"We might as well face it: as we try to leave the set patterns and ideological thinking and planning of the 19th and early 20th centuries and launch ourselves and our regions and nations into the delicate, dangerous age of close human relations, we are going to need to understand the different screens through which we peer at each other and adjust our behavior not only to what we feel and think but to what 'the others' feel and think also, even though it is unconscious thinking and feeling." 

In 'The Hidden Dimension', Edward Hall made the point, "The ethnic crisis, the urban crisis, and the education crisis are interrelated; all three are different facets of a larger crisis, a natural outgrowth of man’s having developed the cultural dimension – most of which is hidden from view." In 'The Hidden Dimension', Edward Hall explored man's perception of space – his own personal space - through the five senses. 

As well, Edward Hall explored the uses man would make of space and his adjustments to it in architecture, art, psychology, and urban problems. "Man is the kind of creature he is because of the culture in which he was reared, based on his biological heritage. This is the departure point for Dr. Hall's intriguing small book," reviewer Ray Embree remarked. 

"While we are all the product of our biological ancestry, from which we cannot separate ourselves, we are modified and molded by language and culture, with the result that men of different cultural backgrounds sometimes have great difficulty in understanding and communicating with others. Thus cultural difference exists not only between nations, but between regions and groups within the same nation. 

"Dr. Hall shows that the gulf between man and the lower animals, biologically, is much narrower than many of us think. Studies of animal behavior have gone far toward explaining man’s own nature. The aspect which interests the author of 'Hidden Dimension' is man's perception of space, our own personal space – the spaces which our bodies occupy. Of particular interest to Hall is the result of overcrowding, especially in the slum of large cities.

"Observations and experiments with animals have shown what happens when there are too many individuals of species within a restricted area. Experiments with rats show that under extremely overcrowded conditions there is a breakdown of their social system into complete chaos, including constant fighting, molestation of the females, abandonment by the females of their nests, and even cannibalism of the young. Such a condition Hall calls a 'sink'. He warns, with good scientific backing, that sink conditions are developing rapidly in some of our cities."



Growing up in an upper-middle-class family, Valerie Bertinelli told the press she had "a charmed life." In the TV world, America watched Valerie Bertinelli grown from teenager into a woman on 'One Day At A Time' (1975-1984), the sitcom developed by Norman Lear. "About the fourth year (1978-79), that's when I started getting really good. I've decided to never say never when it comes to my career. Nothing in my career has been planned. Things just happen to come along. I’ve been very lucky. I'll say this (in 1985): if I did do another series, it would be a half-hour comedy on film, not videotape." 

The daughter of a General Motors executive who had to move around the country - from Michigan to Oklahoma, Delaware to Van Nuys in California, Valerie Bertinelli believed she made it in Hollywood because "I think one reason is that I started later than most of them. I was about 11 when I began acting and didn't get on 'One Day' until I was 15, so I was never really a little, cute and precious kid for the audience. I also was fortunate in the kind of roles I took after 'One Day' – and I thank my manager for that. He really guided my career very well." 

In 1981, Valerie Bertinelli played a rich woman who had trouble with reading and writing in the TV movie, 'The Princess and the Cabbie'. Robert Desiderio (who appeared on 'Knots Landing' in the 1988-89 season) played a self-taught cab driver trying to educate her. However her father opposed the arrangement and wanted to hide her away by smothering her with luxuries then marry her off to the son of a friend. 

Written by Edward Pomerantz and directed by Glenn Jordan, Valerie Bertinelli said at the time, "I like it because it was such a nice throwback to the '40s. It's really a nice love story that deals with something that hasn't been dealt with on television – dyslexia. It has no bedroom scenes. It's a classy little film. Finally, a movie without love in the title." 

In 1982, Valerie Bertinelli starred in 'I Was A Mail Order Bride'. It was her fourth TV movie, but her first co-production at CBS through her own company, Tuxedo Ltd. Directed by Marvin Chomsky, Valerie Bertinelli played bachelor girl, Kate Tosconi, a Chicago feature writer. Kate was on an investigative reporting assignment to find out about the men who sought marriage by Federal Express. To do the story, she advertised herself as a bridal candidate in a mail-order-bride magazine. 

Ted Wass played a recently divorced Los Angeles lawyer replying to the ad. Associated Press noted, "It was almost as if scriptwriter Stephen Vito didn't know how to finish the film, so he chose a nonsensical legal proceeding and then a cliché-ridden train scene that would have worked only in a men's cologne ad. At least Cary Grant's movies – see 'I was A Male War Bride' (1949) – satisfied in the end." 

In 1984, Valerie Bertinelli played a nun in love with a priest and decided to leave the covent in the TV movie, 'Shattered Vows'. The movie was based on Mary Gilligan Wong's book, 'Nun: A Personal Memoir'. Mary Gilligan Wong made known, "I told Valerie that of 10 nuns she might have had in school, four would have left the order, three would be supportive, two would have died and one would object. They are really period pieces (the book and the TV movie) about an era that will never be again. 

"I disguised the order as the Sisters of Blessing. It was really the Sisters of Providence in Indiana. I was there (from 1961 to 1968) to see the end of the old training and the beginning of the new ways after Vatican II. I entered the convent at 18 with 66 other girls. However, I had gone to a preparatory high school at 14. Only nine of those who went in when I did are still in the order (in 1984). 

"Once we leave, we don't want to feel nunny. We tend to not talk about our experience. We'd been so cloistered for so long, we didn't know how to do things. In dealing with others, we lived in fear of revealing our past because we didn't know how they might react. The movie is a coming-to-terms story, a coming-of-age story. It is much broader than just a nun's story. I came to realize God doesn't want your guilt; God doesn't want you here unless you are willing to be here." 

For the part, Valerie Bertinelli voiced, "All I did was think back on my childhood and talk to Mary to prepare for this role." Once Valerie decided to do the TV movie, she took Mary to a concert in San Diego. "When Mary came back stage after the concert with a can of beer and bummed a cigarette, Edward (Van Halen) knocked me on the shoulder and said, 'You're not going to have any trouble playing this part.'" 

In 1985, then 25, Valerie Bertinelli played a woman who witnessed her brother-in-law participated in a gang rape but was pressured by her husband and in-laws to stay silent in order to protect the family. 'Silent Witness' was produced by Robert Greenwald who also produced the TV movie, 'The Burning Bed' starring Farrah Fawcett. "Yes, one of the reasons I took this was because it was such a challenge and a stretch."

Valerie made the point, "I have nothing in my life to relate to this, so I really had to work at creating a character. And she grows. By seeing such a terrible crime happen and by making all the wrong decisions, she finally gets to the right decision and sticks by it. She decides to stop being a victim. By the end of the film, she's definitely standing up for what she believes is right. Even faced with her husband leaving, she stands by her decision. I just couldn’t turn it down. It was so well-written. Believe me, scripts like this don't come along that often." 

In 1989, Valerie Bertinelli starred in 'Taken Away', a TV movie co-produced by Marlo Thomas. "Marlo called me and said it was important to do this. I cried my eyes out when I was done with it. I'd never been affected that much ... I said, 'I can't do this (role). I'm not emotionally ready.' They had to convince me. There's no decent day care for working people. These women are not bad mothers. They're doing the best they can. 

"This woman I play – Stephanie Monroe – represents so many other women in similar circumstances, that it's frightening. For me, looking in from the outside, it's shocking that these things happen. For the Stephanies in our country who experience it, it's a nightmare. That's why I'm glad to talk about the film – not just because it's something I've done as an actress – but because it's something people should see to realize what is happening in this country to so many women and to so many children. 

"What follows is an unbelievable, but not uncommon, string of events. Stephanie can’t see her child. Her daughter is placed in protective custody, Stephanie could lose her. And, basically, it’s all because she’s poor, one of the many working poor single mothers in our country. But what happens in real life is where you find the real drama, something a lot of working mothers know very well. 

"Many of them who will watch this movie have already experienced something like this, and others probably feel that they can be next. But none of this should happen to anyone … If you take a child out of his or her home when nothing is wrong, you may well be creating an abusive situation that didn't exist before. There may be abuse in the foster home or in the shelter or juvenile hall. Of course, most foster parents are fine people and most shelters are run well. 

"However, even in those instances – if a child from a loving, non-abusive home is put into one of these places, the emotional shock itself would be a cruel experience to go through. Oh, Lord ... I would hope that the film lets people know that we need legislation to provide good child care, for one. I'd also like people to be aware that everything ultimate falls on the poor. Whatever problems we have in the country, the poor have the worst of it and usualy get little, if any help. Particularly poor women. 

"We have to stop finger-pointing – telling women that it's their fault that things go wrong in their families or that they should somehow do better with the little they have. Most of these women are working and trying to stay off welfare and raise their children. The least we can do is give the children decent care while they’re at work. Because she was poor (she doesn’t have the choice of deciding very much about her own life). The poor usually have to live with choices made for them." 

'The Tribune' 1989: What about critics of the system who say everything would be fine if these women just stayed home and took care of their children the way they did in the old days?

Valerie Bertinelli: Because they can't afford to stay home. I don't want this to sound as if it were men-bashing or anything, but the fact is, it's the men who left them with the children and they have to make the best of it with very little help from anyone.

Valerie also told the press the pressures on various counseling services such as planned parenthood "to which many of these women go because they need advice about family planning" was counterproductive. "Women need information so that they can make informed choices about having children or not having children. Also, we can’t forget that many of these people are children themselves; we have a country in which children have children.

"If you can't personally support these institutions, at least let those women who feel they need their services feel free to go to them. I'm sorry if I sounded so, well, all burned up about things. But there's so much we can do as a society to help people and all we seem to want to do is, as I said before, point fingers. Isn't it time we started making some changes?

"Ideally, in the home. But if that's not possible, then in the school. None of us would be anywhere without good teachers and it's a shame that we don't recognize that fact and pay teachers so that we get the best and the brightest people to come into the profession. After all, these are the people who can determine what kind of future our children will have, and through our children, what kind of future our country will have."

Of her role on 'One Day At A Time', Valerie Bertinelli stated, "I think Barbara is 85-90% me. I was only 15 when I started the show and I wasn't doing character work, so I played me. So she is very much like me. It's a very realistic view of growing up, very true to life. I think everything is really there. I took the classes (drama lessons) at first just to overcome my shyness. Then I thought it would be fun to see myself on TV by doing just one commercial. So I did a commercial and it was fun.

"But my parents didn't want me to become an actress. They had heard all the stories about sex and booze and drugs in Hollywood. And I agred with them. I was only 12 and didn't want to be a part of all the terrible things I heard. Once you've seen yourself on the screen, the acting bug bites you and I went to an interview for a role in the pilot of a new TV situation comedy series. I'd never acted before in my life. They called me back for four interviews.

"On the final one I was told to wait in an outer office with three other girls. Then the secretary came out and asked the other three to leave. I was flabbergasted. I guess they cast me because I was bright and cheerful and cute and tomboyish. A lot of the things I'd heard are true. I've seen and heard some things that are really scary and awful. Some of them really happen in this town and in this business. But not to me. I have my own type of sophistication.

"It may not be the glamorous kind of Hollywood polish. But I don't play the dumb brunette either, I go my own way and lead my own life. Some people may think I'm square, but that doesn't bother me at all. I have to live with myself and my own standards. I'm not saying they're better or worse than anyone else's. So far, I've never come across any man with a casting couch. If I did, I'd slap his face. Anyhow, I've never been desperate for a job because I never had to support myself."

At 17, "I have a long way to go. I know that. But I'm happy working in a series. It's a fabulous learning experience for me. And it's an easy way to grow up in this town, learning to take care of myself and looking forward to being independent. When I talk about wanting to be more independent, my dad tells me I'm 17 going on 30 – but doesn't every dad say that about his daughter?

"Actually I am pretty independent because I like taking care of things myself, such as my car payments, insurance bills, charge card statements and balancing my checkbook. I like being able to take care of my money and know where its going. As long as I have the money, my dad thinks it's a good investment for me to buy a new car every year."

In 1977, Valerie Bertinelli finished her junior year of high school. By attending classes with non-professional students, "is what bring me back down to earth. I'm pretty level-headed for my age because I have responsibilities of work, but I still am only 17 and I'm a completely normal teenager. I can be silly at times, a little obnoxious, too. I haven't been to many show business parties and the few times I have, I've felt terribly young being surrounded by older people. I don't drink and don't think it's very attractive when teenage girls smoke. I like being 17 (in 1977), I don't want to grow up too fast. I'm taking life one year at a time."

As a strict Roman Catholic, Valerie Bertinelli reportedly subscribed to Debby Boone's philosophy of celibacy before marriage. "I live at home with my mother and father and the things I object to (drinking - except 7-Up, smoking, swearing, fooling around) haven't affected me. I have my own friends who think the way I do. I don't try to please anybody by going along with some of the things they do. But I have had a really normal life for the person I am and for the life I am living."

At 21 looking back, "Talk about blossoming in front of so many millions of people! This is growing up, that's all it is. You know there's a big difference between 15 and 21. There's a lot of growing up that goes on there. Of course, some parts haven't grown yet, and I wonder if they ever will." Some 400 college students voted for Valerie's character to remain a virgin at the age of 19.

"No, no, (it's not surprising) because it's nice to have someone to look up to, you know, to say, 'Well, I don't want to do it, she doesn't do it, so I can not do it, too.' Sure it's realistic. There's lots of 20-year-olds who haven't. I haven't (although she was going out with guitarist Eddie Van Halen at the time). I'm still a virgin (until she married at 21 in April 1981) - oh, don't put that down. I'm just going to make a fool of myself.

"I went up for 'The Blue Lagoon' but I didn't want to do that because of the nudity. I don't do nudity. I'm too much of a private person to let that much go as an actress. I hope films are moving back the other way. I will never do a nude role. Basically, I'm a shy person. Anyway, what's nudity needed for? Look at all the classic movies, like 'Streetcar Named Desire' and 'Gone With The Wind' that did fine without it.

"You know, all I can think about is how I totally lucked out with this job and the good money I get that lets me buy the things I want. It's just so nice to be starting off this young (then age 17). It doesn't bother me when I'm asked for my autograph or when people ask me questions. I try not to be rude or conceited because I hate to put down the people I'm trying to entertain. You know, though, whenever I get fan mail I wonder, 'Why are they writing me? Why me?' Because I don't feel like anybody. I'm just Valerie Bertinelli."

In 2008, then 47, Valerie Bertinelli released her autobiography, "I don't throw anybody under the bus here. The one I'm hardest on is me, and I wanted to make that clear to Ed (Van Halen). I said, 'It's not about hurting you or hurting anybody else.'" In the book Valerie Bertinelli discussed losing her virginity at 16, shared a lesbian kiss, cocaine use and infidelity.   

'USA Today': You write about placing more blame on one of your ex-husband's other women than you did on him. Why the double standard? 

Valerie Bertinelli: To this day, I really am much more angry at her than I ever would be at him. I don't mean that all men can't (be faithful), but a lot of them can't. There are a lot of great men out there; I happen to be with one right now (Tom Vitale). I just think as women, we need to stick together, and we don't need to be (sleeping with) another woman's man. I'd been to this woman's house pregnant. There's nothing more wrong. 

'USA Today': Now that (son) Wolfie (turned 17 in 2008) is playing with Van Halen, are you worried about him falling down the same addictive path as his dad? 

Valerie Bertinelli: Actually, I think quite the opposite has happened. He has seen what it has done to his father, and he knows what his father's like when he's not drinking. He knows how drugs and alcohol change his personality so dramatically, so that has been a helpful tool. Along with my words, actions have a poweful impact.



In the art world, Canadian conceptual artist Iain Baxter was known as an "idea-a-minute man". Jef Bourgeau, founding director of the Museum of New Art (MoNA) in Detroit explained, "Contemporary art is about ideas rather than about beauty. It's about the interaction between the artwork and the viewer." Iain Baxter maintained, "You don't always hit a home run with an idea, but you can never be wrong. Products (including deodorant, soap and toothpaste) define our lives." 

David Burnett, a curator at the Art Gallery of Ontario observed, "He just pours out ideas and jumps from one thing to another. His mind is constantly jumping, moving, thinking, making connections." Insisting everything in life was a work of art, Iain and Elaine Baxter launched N.E. Thing Co. (as in, "anything goes") from 1965 to 1970. 

Art critic Victoria Donohoe elaborated, "Iain and Elaine Baxter, like Marshall McLuhan believed it was the mission of the artist to educate the senses. If art was a way of looking at things, they wanted to convince the general population to make culture part of everyday life by altering the way things were seen. Iain Baxter wanted to pull artists out of their isolation and set them to work in everyday situations, particularly ones involving instant communications. Baxter has a deep passion for the world of instant communication." 

Iain Baxter clarified, "An artist with the need to create original and radical works must first get sick and tired of all the work he sees. Only then is he left with a clear field to look into." Marshall McLuhan cautioned against using a rear-view mirror for judging what may be ahead of us, "The past went that-a-way. When faced with a totally new situation, we tend always to attach ourselves to the objects, to the flavor of the most recent past. We look at the present through a rear-view mirror. We march backwards into the future." 

Iain Baxter intended to change concepts of reality rather than reality itself. Thomas Garver, one-time director of Newport Habor Art Museum remarked, "He tends to make universal applications of his visual information in such a way as to minimize the difference between reality and art as an artificial construct, the two being brought together within the realm of sensitivity and universal education." 

Iain Baxter's "main interest is discovering new ways of looking at familiar objects such as the American business, with all its niches, crannies, organizational hangups, and people pigeon holes." At one time, Iain Baxter staged a 5-hour Monopoly game played with real money in a display window. Three artists were pitted against a real-estate developer and a banker. 

Iain Baxter noted, "The banker and the developer ended in a tie. They worked out landing rights, which was changing the rules of the game. But that's what an entrepreneur is supposed to do." In 1977, Iain Baxter opened the Eye Scream restaurant in Vancouver. As reported, "He covered the restaurant's exterior with aluminum truck siding, served 'cubist salads' and filet mignons shaped like Volkswagens and went broke in two years." 

By the 1980s, art critic John Mays reported, "The art world has shifted out from under him. For a while he was so far out that even the Europeans hadn’t caught up with him. It was outrageous, joyous work. Then the rest of the world caught up with Iain Baxter." Of his art, Iain Baxter declared, "It extends to the total environment." By 1982, Iain Baxter's art had become more conservative (or sellable / hangable). 

Herbert Sigman, one-time director of the Bau-Xi gallery in Toronto told the press, "He reflects what a number of artists who were experimental in the '60s and early '70s are doing: shifting back to more conventional mediums." In 1981, Polaroid Corp commissioned Iain Baxter for a project called 'Instant America', after discovering Iain Baxter had been using Polaroid pictures in his painting work at one of his exhibitions in Europe. In one display, Iain Baxter painted green trees and hung them with Polaroid pictures of real apples. 

Polaroid would subsidize Iain Baxter's 12,000 miles journey across 31 states in 40 days. Driving a Toyota camper, Iain Baxter set out on his 10-city American visit to take pictures of tourist attractions. However Iain Baxter would adopt the Polaroid-mirror technique by standing with his back toward the scenic views and photographing through his shaving mirror. 

"It's like looking at something that's never been in that context before, like looking in a rear-view mirror and polishing a closer focus. It does something to normal reality that makes you focus on its point of view," Iain Baxter told the press. "Three hundred years ago I would have been a court jester or a wizard. One of the neat roles in life is inspired joker." Marshall McLuhan was convinced humor was a learning tool, "often the best guide to changing perceptions." 

In November 1982, Canadian brewery, Labatt Brewing Co. hired Iain Baxter as an idea consultant after he met and told then president Sidney Oland at a Toronto dinner party what business needed was an artist's world view. "They want me to come in and talk to the president once a month or so. Just talk to him about anything on my mind. They told me, 'We need your kind of thinking,'" Iain Baxter made known at the time. 

"It took me a bit of time to become aware of the complexity of this industry and for people not to feel uneasy coming to me. I'm sort of a healthy burr in the saddle. My job is to nuance the creative process and to be a catalyst for ideas. I'm here to pick people's brains and let people pick my brain." Dennis Manning, the  manager of public policy for Labatt told the press, "Iain's most significant contribution has been to bring a different perspective to bear. He didn't come up through the corporate structure so he has an objectivity those who climbed the corporate ladder don't." 

'Detroit Free Press' reported, "For instance, Manning credits Baxter for the design of the billboards publicizing Labatt's $1 million campaign to discourage driving after drinking. The billboards show a child and the words, 'For him' or 'For her … please don't drink and drive.'" David Manning disclosed, "A billboard message must be simple and direct. Iain is responsible for the bold look of our billboards."

Victor Murray, a professor at York University in Toronto, made the comment, "The incorporation of a resident iconoclast, responsible only for creative thinking, is very novel. It's a fascinating idea." David Burnett added, "I don't think he has been regarded seriously enough. He hasn't received the credit he really deserves for the work he's done over the last 20 years (1960s-1980s). He is a very generative influence." Iain Baxter stated, "I think I know I'm a serious artist. I just happen to be a court jester as well. Life is really just a nice space to float through and enjoy." 

Blog Archive